COUNTERFEIT OR NOT THE PERSHING WATCH

Written by  on April 9, 2015 

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THE POPULARITY OF THE UNIQUE PERSHING DIAL
MADE THAT DIAL THE PERSHING DIAL.

NOTE THE POCKET STYLED / CASED PERSHING ABOVE. WE STILL DISCOVER SPECIAL “PERSHING DIALED” WATCHES IN MANY FORMS

IT SEEMS THAT MORE OFTEN THAN NOT, SOMEONE, USUALLY FROM A WATCH FORUM,WILL CONTACT ROCK TO INFORM HIM THAT SOMETHING/EVERYTHING IN AN OFFER IS INCORRECT. NOW, ROCK IS NOT INFALLIBLE , BUT 99.5% OF THE TIME, EXPERIENCE AND STUDY MATCHED WITH REASON WINS THE DAY.


 

 

 

 

FOR AMERICANS [GENERAL PERSHING]

IN THIS “CASE” IT WAS STATED THE DIAL IS NOT A “PERSHING “, THAT ELGIN MADE A ONLY A SPECIFIC CUSHION CASED WATCH WITH THIS DIAL CALLED THE PERSHING. THAT IT IS THE WATCH AND NOT THE DIAL. WELL, IN THE US IT WAS A PERSHING DIAL.
IN BRITAIN A KITCHENER DIAL, IN FRANCE A FOCH DIAL.


 

 

 

 

 

FOR BRITISH [LORD KITCHENER]

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Join Your Country’s Army! God save the King.”

YOU SEE, ELGIN PRIDED ITSELF AS THE AVERAGE MAN’S WATCH COMPANY
SUPPLYING TOP LINE WATCHES FOR THE AVERAGE AMERICAN [DUE TO MASS PRODUCTION]. AND, YES, THEY CREATED A CUSHION CASED “PERSHING WATCH” WITH THIS DIAL, AND THE BRITISH KITCHENER AND FRENCH FOCH.

FOCH.jpg (2608 bytes)
FRENCH GENERAL FOCH
HERO 1918 FRANCE

BUT SILVER AND GOLD FILLED CUSHION CASES THEY WERE COSTLY AND IN THE USA, THERE WERE MORE EX 1ST ID VETERANS THAN ANY

KITCHENER-STRAP.jpg (64673 bytes)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.STORE IN ENGLAND
NOTE KITCHENER MILITARY STRAPS?
NOTE THE THOUSANDS OF TRENCH WATCHES
[4 BUCKS US]
IT WAS ARGUED FOR 3 YEARS BY ROCK THAT MORE MILITARY
WATCHES WERE SOLD THAN ISSUED BY THE MILITARY
THERE FOR THERE ATE MIL ISSUED AND MIL NON ISSUED WATCHES

SALES AND DEMAND MEANT USING THIS DIAL IN DIFFERENT CASES AND CALLING ANY WATCH WITH THIS DIAL “A PERSHING” . WHILE I CANNOT SAY THAT THE KITCHENER/FOCH VERSIONS BECAME THAT POPULAR, SO MANY WERE SOLD IN THE USA THAT EVEN TODAY BRAND NEW OLD STOCK CAN BE FOUND. YES AN AMPLE
SUPPLY OF NEW OLD STOCK!.

AND, WHEN ORDERING A DIAL, A WATCH MAKER WOULD ASK FOR A “PERSHING DIAL.

MORE WATCHES IN “ORD” STYLE MILITARY CASES EXIST WITH PERSHING DIALS THEN CUSHION CASED “PERSHING DIALED” CASES..

THEY SIMPLY WERE THE RAGE. AND WHILE OFFICERS SERVED, IT WAS THE INFANTRY THAT DOMINATED THE FIELD. 1ST ID [LATER WWII BIG RED ONE] INFANTRY DIVISION SURVIVORS PURCHASED PERSHING DIALED WATCHES AS WELL AS THE PUBLIC.

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WWI TRENCH PERSHING DIALED

 

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WWI DATED ELGIN MOVEMENT & CASE

PROBLEM WITH SOME STATING ONLY A CUSHION CASE WITH THIS DIAL WAS A PERSHING IS THAT UP UNTIL THE LATE 1930’S, YOU COULD STILL
INVEST IN A POCKET WATCH AND PICK THE MOVEMENT, DIAL AND CASE

YOU ALSO COULD HAVE A TRENCH CONFIGURED THE WAY YOU WANTED IT TO BE
BLACK DIAL WHITE DIAL STRAPS … OH AND YOU COULD BUY READY TO GO

NOW, WHEN THE PERSHING WAS FIRST RELEASED,WITH SILVER, “PURE NICKEL”. OR GOLD FILLED CUSHION CASE WITH WHAT WOULD BECOME THE PERSHING DIAL, IT WAS COSTLY

WHY ARE MINTY PERSHING DIALS STILL FOUND IN PRISTINE CONDITION TODAY?

IT DID NOT TAKE LONG FOR WATCH MAKERS AND JEWELERS TO MOUNT THE DIAL IN VARIOUS CASES
TAKE THE ELGIN POCKET WATCH ABOVE. THE DIAL FIT PERFECT ON THE MOVEMENT

99% OF THE “EXPERTS” WHO SATE THE PERSHING WAS JUST ONE CUSHION CASED
WATCH AVAILABLE IN THREE STYLE FINISHES ARE ABSOLUTELY WRONG, WRONG, WRONG

EXPECT TO SEE SOME LIKE THE ONE ABOVE. THOUGH I WOULD NOT
SAY IT IS A PERSHING WITHOUT PHYSICALLY INSPECTING IT

 

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THE ABOVE WATCH IS NOT WHAT IS EXPECTED OF THE PERSHING, I FOUND THE LINK TO IT ON A WATCH FORUM UNDER FRANKEN PERSHING WATCHES. BUT, NOTE THE ABOVE DIAL HAD RADIUM DIAL AND HANDS. NOTE THAT IT IS A 1918 + TWO PART DIAL-YOU CAN SEE THIS BE LOOKING AT THE DEEP SUNK SUB SECONDS REGISTER

THUS, THIS INDEED LOOKS TO BE A WATCHMAKER OR JEWELERS HANDY WORK.
THIS IS WHY THE IT WAS THE DIAL THAT BECAME THE IDENTIFIER OF A “PERSHING” WATCH. AFTER ALL, PLENTY OF CUSHION CASES WERE AVAILABLE BUT ONLY ONE DIAL THAT WAS IDENTIFIED AS A PERSHING

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AN ELGIN POCKET WATCH
-WITH PERSHING DIAL-

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 AFTER RESTORING OVER 200 PERSHING DIALED WATCHES, WE CONCLUDED THAT, THOUGH ELGIN PRODUCED A PERSHING WATCH WITH SPECIFIC CASE, SOON AFTER THE POPULARITY DEFINED THE DIAL AND NOT THE CASE. THUS, THE OFFICIAL ELGIN POCKET WATCH WITH ELGIN PERIOD MOVEMENT, AND ELGIN CASE, WITH THE DIAL MATCHING IT ALL, THIS IS A PERSHING WATCH IN EVERY WAY AND FORM

A POCKET WATCH WITH A PERSHING DIAL A PERFECTLY MATCHED POCKET WATCH   A GIFT TO A MAJOR IN THE US ARMY AIR CORPS 1916 THROUGH 1922. IT HAS A TWO PIECE 1918 DIAL WITH SUNK SUB SECONDS REGISTER. NOTE THE SUB SECOND REGISTER IS IN A WELL. IS THIS A PERSHING???? YES, YES, YES, YES

   

 DURING WWI, ELGIN CREATED A WATCH WITH A UNLQUE BLACK “AMERICAN MILITARY DIAL. WITH 48 STARS FOR THE STATES, A SHELD AND EAGLE, WITH USA AND ELGIN. THEY WERE AWESOME. THE DIAL WAS CASED IN CUSHION CASES IN SILVER, GOLD FILLED AND NICKLE – SIMILAR TO THE 1918 GERMAN ALPINA BELOW. IT DID NOT SELL WELL. AND ELGIN HAD A FORTUNE TIED UP SO THEY CAME UP WITH AN IDEA… USE GENERAL PERSHINGS NAME…..

 

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PERSHING
TRENCH WATCH

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OUR OFFER: A WWI TRENCH WATCH WITH GUARD

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AWESOME VINTAGE LEATHER AND CLOTH/MATERIAL STRAP

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I CHOSE YELLOW & LUME TIPS FOR HANDS EASIER TO READ THROUGH GUARD

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NOTE THE TWO PIECES NOT LINED UP

YELLOW FOR DAY GREEN AT NIGHT
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HERE W/O SHEILD WEAR WITH OR NOT

NOTE DIAL LUME DOTS FOR NIGHT VIEW

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I CHOSE THE 44TH ENGINEERS DUE TO THERE MOTTO
“BUILDERS OF FREEDOM”

[ALSO THE LIEUTENENTS BAR TO LOCK THE STRAP TO CUFF]

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AFTER FITTING WATCH I THEN COMPLETED THE 60 DAY RESTORE OF STRAP

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WWI BRITISH OFFICERS KIT #1 IS A TRENCH WATCH

WHILE ELGIN MADE WATCHES WITH POPULAR PERSONA NAMES. UNLESS IT IS A FRENCH FOCH OR  ENGLISH KITCHENER, ANY WATCH WITH THIS DIAL IS CALLED A PERSHING. PERIOD. NOT AS THE BRAND NAME OF ONE DESIGN OR STYLE, BUT SIMPLY ANY WATCH WITH THIS DIAL BY ELGIN!!

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RESTORE CASE RE-SILVER ELECTROFORM
A PROCESS OF PLATING W/HEAVY SILVER

RETENTION 24 HOURS IN SOLUTION
RESTORE BEZEL RE-SILVER ELECTROFORM
A PROCESS OF PLATING W/HEAVY SILVER

RETENTION 24 HOURS IN SOLUTION
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RESTORE GUARD RE-SILVER ELECTROFORM
A PROCESS OF PLATING W/HEAVY SILVER

RETENTION 24 HOURS IN SOLUTION

TESTING AND ADJUSTING

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TO REMOVE WATCH SLIDE LEATHER ONTO STRAP

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SLIDE ON BOTTOM AS SHOWN. NOTE THE ALUMINUM HOLDER

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SIMPLY BEND TO REMOVE IT IS SOFT YET TUFF THEN LEATHER STRAP PULLS UP

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*WHEN SETTING GENTLY PULL CROWN AND, WHILE HOLDING, SET TIME

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 WHILE THERE ARE CUSHION CASED WATCHES WITH THIS DIAL, THERE ARE POCKETS AND TRENCHES ALSO WITH THIS DIAL. BECAUSE PERSHING WAS CHOSEN FOR THE FIRST NAMED WATCH WITH THIS DIAL, IT MADE THE DIAL A PERSHING.. DUH.. [JUST FOR THOSE KIA FOR KNOW IT ALL’S.

 

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METAL BASE W/PORCELAIN
SINGLE PIECE THREE FEET
DATED AUGUST 1918
NOTE HOLE FOR SUB REGISTER
MEANS HAND RIDES DIAL TOP

METAL BASE W/PORCELAIN
DOUBLE INTRODUCED 1918 ALLOWED
DEEPER SUB SECONDS REGISTER WELL
FOR USE IN TRENCH AND POCKET
WATCH CASES WITH FLATER HANDS
THREE FEET -DATED DECEMBER 1918

 [EVENTUALLY THEY WOULD PRODUCE SOME WITH WHITE DIALS,]

 

THE ELGIN PERSHING

REMEMBER, THEY WERE AN EXPENSIVE DUD. SALES WERE NOT IN LINE WITH COSTS. BUT ALL IN ALL THEY NEEDED A PROPER NAMES.  INTRODUCE GENERAL JOHN J “BLACK JACK” PERSHING. THEY NAMED THE WATCH AFTER THE NOW FAMOUS GENERAL. THUS THE WATCH COMPLETE WAS CALLED THE PERSHING. ADVEERTISE AS JONN J BLACK JACK PERSHING. THE POPULARITY OF PERSHING MEANT THE WATCHES BEGAN FLYING OFF THE SELVES.

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 THE ELGIN KITCHENER

 

WITH THE CREATION OF THE 1ST ID [BIG RED ONE!] BY PERSHING AND IT’S JUMP POINT TO MAINLAND EUROPE BEING THE UNITED KINGDOM, ELGIN, WHOM WERE SUPPLIERS OF TIMING DEVISES TO THE US AND ENGLAND [BOTH WARS] , DISCOVERED  THERE WAS AN ENGLISH VERSION OF “BLACK JACK” BY THE NAME OF [LORD] KITCHENER.   KITCHENER LOVED BY ALL .. INCLUDING THOSE WHOM WANTED TO PROFIT —NOTE THOUSANDS OF LEATHER TRENCH WATCH STRAPS  BEING SOLD  AS “KITCHENER MILITARY STRAPS”.

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LORD KITCHENER

Materials_and_Money.tif.jpg (18186 bytes) WATCHES WITH THE
BLACK 48 STAR DIAL
SOLD IN ENGLAND
WERE CALLED THE
KITCHENER WATCH
THINK! WAS IT THE
CASE OR DIAL?
THE DIAL!

 

THE POPULARITY OF THE UNIQUE PERSHING DIAL
MADE THAT DIAL THE PERSHING DIAL.

NOTE THE POCKET STYLED / CASED PERSHING ABOVE. WE STILL DISCOVER SPECIAL “PERSHING DIALED”  WATCHES IN MANY FORMS

IT SEEMS THAT MORE OFTEN THAN NOT, SOMEONE, USUALLY FROM A WATCH FORUM,
WILL CONTACT ROCK TO INFORM HIM THAT SOMETHING/EVERYTHING IN AN OFFER IS INCORRECT. NOW, ROCK IS NOT INFALLIBLE , BUT 99.5% OF THE TIME, EXPERIENCE AND STUDY MATCHED WITH REASON WINS THE DAY.


FOR AMERICANS [GENERAL PERSHING]

IN THIS “CASE” IT WAS STATED THE DIAL IS NOT A “PERSHING “, THAT ELGIN MADE A ONLY A SPECIFIC CUSHION CASED WATCH WITH THIS DIAL CALLED THE PERSHING. THAT IT IS THE WATCH AND NOT THE DIAL. WELL, IN THE US IT WAS A PERSHING DIAL.
IN BRITAIN A KITCHENER DIAL, IN FRANCE A FOCH DIAL.


FOR BRITISH [LORD KITCHENER]

Materials_and_Money.tif.jpg (18186 bytes)
Join Your Country’s Army! God save the King.”

YOU SEE, ELGIN PRIDED ITSELF AS THE AVERAGE MAN’S WATCH COMPANY
SUPPLYING TOP LINE WATCHES FOR THE AVERAGE AMERICAN [DUE TO MASS PRODUCTION]. AND, YES,  THEY CREATED A CUSHION CASED “PERSHING WATCH” WITH THIS DIAL, AND THE BRITISH KITCHENER AND FRENCH FOCH.

FOCH.jpg (2608 bytes)
FRENCH GENERAL FOCH
HERO 1918 FRANCE

BUT  SILVER AND GOLD FILLED CUSHION CASES THEY WERE COSTLY AND IN THE USA, THERE WERE MORE EX 1ST ID VETERANS THAN ANYKITCHENER-STRAP.jpg (64673 bytes)

.STORE IN ENGLAND
NOTE KITCHENER MILITARY STRAPS?
NOTE THE THOUSANDS OF TRENCH WATCHES
[4 BUCKS US]
IT WAS ARGUED FOR 3 YEARSBY ROCK THAT MORE MILITARY
WATCHES WERE SOLD THAN ISSUED BY THE MILITARY
THERE FOR THERE ATE MIL ISSUED AND MIL NON ISSUED WATCHES

SALES AND DEMAND MEANT USING THIS DIAL IN DIFFERENT CASES AND CALLING ANY WATCH WITH THIS DIAL “A PERSHING” . WHILE I CANNOT SAY THAT THE KITCHENER/FOCH VERSIONS BECAME THAT POPULAR, SO MANY WERE SOLD IN THE USA THAT EVEN TODAY BRAND NEW OLD STOCK CAN BE FOUND. YES AN AMPLE
SUPPLY OF NEW OLD STOCK!.

AND, WHEN ORDERING A DIAL, A WATCH MAKER WOULD ASK FOR  A “PERSHING DIAL.

MORE WATCHES IN “ORD” STYLE MILITARY CASES EXIST WITH PERSHING DIALS THEN CUSHION CASED “PERSHING DIALED” CASES..

THEY SIMPLY WERE THE RAGE. AND WHILE OFFICERS SERVED, IT WAS THE INFANTRY THAT DOMINATED THE FIELD. 1ST ID [LATER WWII BIG RED ONE] INFANTRY DIVISION SURVIVORS PURCHASED PERSHING DIALED WATCHES AS WELL AS THE PUBLIC.

 

THE  “ELGIN KETCHENER CUSHION CASE WAS BORN.

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THE ELGIN FOCH

NOW, ELGIN DID NOT STOP HERE, AFTER ALL THE FRENCH HAD TO HAVE A SALEMAN.. ONE WHOSE NAME WOULD SELL WATCHES! .STEP UP FEILD MARSHAL FOCH! FOCH WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR HALTING THE ADVANCE OF THE GERMANS DURING THE GREAT PUSH IN THE SPRING OF 1918 AND THEN LEADING A COUNTER ATTACK THAT HELPED TURN THE TIDES OF THE WAR…

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 WHY? THEY WERE USED TO MAKE WATCHES UP TILL THE 1930’S. AND THERE WERE MORE CASED NOT IN CUSHION CASES, BUT ALL SORTS OF CASES. WHY? THEY WERE STILL CAALLED BY THE DIALS NAME AND NOT THE NAME OF THE FIRST WTCHES WITH CUSHION CASES. IN FACT THERE ARE MORE RE-CASED PERSHINGS THEN THE ORIGINAL PERSHING. IN OTHER WORDS, THERE ARE PLENTY OF CASES.

 

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WWI UNIT INSIGNIA OF THE
1ST ID
NOTE THE STATUE IS SIMILAR TO THAT CHOSEN
FOR THE ENTIRE ALLIED FORCES VICTORY MEDAL


By the Fall of 1917, 1st ID soldiers and other American soldiers were pouring into France each day and winding up in the trenches of France. Once there, the dismal trench life of mud, parasites, poor food and the constant artillery barrage started to take it’s toll and undermine the morale of the troops. The Americans to give up their lives also occurred in the fall of 1917. In the lead up to the battle of Cantigny, 1st Division troopers Corporal James B. Gresham, Privates Thomas F. Enright and Merle D. Hay lost their lives when the the American trenches were raided by German troops at Bathelémont on November 2, 1917.

As the Central Powers continued a series of devistating offensives, Pershing was hard pressed to create an action plan to both improve the moral of his men and to counter victories of the Germans; who were desperate to win before the US could send more troops and supplies.

 The action plan that Pershing would create would be an attack plan, a means to get his soldiers up and out of those slits of mud and blood, those mind numbing trenches. Pershing would improve upon the use of artillery and marksmanship. He devised a battle plane for precise rolling artillery barrages followed up by waves of infantry; the goal was to break through and behind German entrenchment’s and capture German artillery positions and, ultimately, supply lines. Positioning, Training, Supplying and Planning took nearly 8 months. In the spring of 1918, 1st ID forces were prepared for their first attack.

April/May 1918. Spring time 1918 was anything but joyous. The Germans had launched a series successful offensives. Within 40 miles of Paris, the Germans began massing troops with the plan to break through and seize Paris herself… a fact that had the Allied Powers seeing red. And it was at the place where the first Americans of  the war would lose their lives …

 

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PATENTED SHRAPNEL GUARDS

It was at the German Occupied French village of Cantigny that events would play their course. Cantigny had proven to be a hard place for the French to reclaim and even harder to keep when they got it. In order to turn the tables on the Germans,they had to win it back. It was not a war winning fact, but it was necessary to improve the morale of all allied troops.

With German artillery and machine guns guarding the approaches to Cantigny, 4,000 1st ID soldiers of the division’s 2nd Infantry Brigade, 28th Infantry Regiment, relieve an exhausted French First Army forces that manned trenches 600 yards from the village. Under Pershings plan, an Allied artillery bombardment began just before 6 a.m. May 28 and the 1st ID forces moved in and took the village in an hour.

The Germans replied with artillery while hidden German soldiers emerged to battle close quarters with the 1st ID Forces and lost. The 1st ID Forces would repulsed three German counter attacks.

Cantigny stands as the definition of 1st ID and the eventual reputation of the Big Red One as well and the proof that the US could more than stand toe to toe with any force.

American forces numbering one million in 29 divisions by the summer of 1918, did more than help route the Germans in the fall of 1918.

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ROCK’S WWI MILITARYWATCHBOX
[IN A MUSEUM]

 
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WWII BIG RED ONE
1ST ID

 

In 17 months under Gen Pershing, the 1st ID went from a a small,loose group of rapidly trained ground troops, to a concise, well trained and courageous unit that helped defeat the most powerful army in the world’

Over 22,320 1st ID troops perished in the Great War, 1ST ID helped clear St. Mihiel salient , fought in the Meuse-Argonne Forest advancing seven kilometers and defeating eight German divisions,  completed the farthest American penetration of the war, was first to cross the Rhine into occupied Germany. Five Medals of Honor were awarded. The 1st ID colors carry campaign streamers for (1) Lorraine, 1917; (2) Lorraine, 1918; (3) Picardy, 1918; (4) Montdidier-Noyon; (5) Aisne-Marne; (6) St. Hihiel; and (7) Meuse- Argonne.

America’s military stepped into the 20th century on the backs of those troopers of the 1st ID . And two decades later the 1st ID would once again place the U.S. Army at the forefront of the Western world.

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ROCKS WWI MILITARY WATCH BOX #16 AND 20
ONE  BOUGHT BY WIFE OF WEST POINT OFFICER
WHO WAS BEING PROMOTED TO CAPTAIN AT WEST POINT

THE OTHER A PROFESSER OF HISTORY

WWI BLACK RATTLERS =  HARLEM HELL FIGHTERS
PURCHASED BY A PROFESSOR OF HISTORY
GOOGLE “GOLDSMITHWORKS HARLEM HELLFIGHTERS”

 NOTE: THE NAME BLACK RATTLERS CHANGED TO HARLEM HELL FIGHTERS AFTER THE GERMANS BEGAN CALLING THE SOLDIERS OF THE 369TH “FIGHTERS FROM HELL”.

 

While many African Americans eagerly volunteered to join the Allied cause following America’s entry into WWI, the U.S. armed forces remained segregated throughout the WarI. Over 350,000 African Americans  would serve with the American Expeditionary Force on the Western Frontw  by the time of the armistice with Germany on November 1918.

While many African American units were relegated to support roles, the HARLEM HELL FIGHTERS of the 369th Infantry Regiment would become one of America’ most honored, medaled and experienced combat regiments.

General John “Black Jack” Pershing assigned the 369th to the 16th Division of the French Army.

With the French, the Harlem Hellfighters fought at Chateau-Thierry and Belleau Wood; they helped to repel the German offensive and launched a counteroffensive.

The 369th would spend 191 days in combat on the front lines – longer than any other American unit in the war.

The 369th was the first Allied unit to reach the Rhine.

“My men never retire, they go forward or they die,” said Colonel Hayward.

171 members of the 369th were awarded the French Legion of Merit.

And six were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for actions in World War I.

The extraordinary valor of the 369th earned them fame in Europe and America and opened the door for many African Americans to enjoy   freedom and adoration  when they went overseas throughout the 1940′ to the 1960′.

Newspapers headlined the feats of Corporal Henry Johnson and Private Needham Roberts. In May 1918 they were defending an isolated lookout post on the Western Front, when they were attacked by a German unit. Though wounded, they refused to surrender, fighting on with whatever weapons were at hand. They were the first Americans awarded the Croix de Guerre, and they were not the only Harlem Hellfighters to win awards; 171 of its officers and men received individual medals and the unit received a Croix de Guerre for taking Sechault.

In December 1917, when Colonel Hayward’s men had departed from New York City, they had not been permitted to participate in the farewell parade of New York’s National Guard, the so-called Rainbow division. The reason Hayward was given was that “black is not a color in the Rainbow.”

When they returned home in February of 1919, Colonel Hayward pulled every political string he could to assure his men would be rewarded with a victory parade.

Crowds thronged New York City’s Fifth Avenue as the 369th marched to the music of their now-famous regimental jazz band leader, James Reese Europe. After the parade, city officials honored the troops at a special dinner.

World War I initiated changes on the home front that permanently affected the lives of Americans, black and white. While defense production was up, the war had cut off the flow of immigrant labor. Workers were needed in the North, and African Americans seized the opportunity.

African Americans left the rural South & Jim Crow, lynchings, and oppressive economic conditions.

The Great Migration — the most massive internal migration in American history — brought several million African Americans North before the Depression stemmed its flow.

With the migrants, black culture entered the American mainstream, changing it forever. Musical styles never heard before outside the South became “hot.”

The Jazz Age and a Harlem Renaissance blossomed into one of the nation’s greatest artistic outpourings

On the political front, participation in World War I did little to directly advance the equal rights of African Americans.

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I DO THIS TO FEED MY FAMILY AND PROVIDE A PRODUCT OF HISTORY TO YOU

SOME STOCK

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The GREAT WAR

World War I (W.W.I) or First World War (called at the time the Great
War) was a major war centered on Europe that began in the summer of
1914. The fighting ended in November 1918. This conflict involved
all of the world’s great powers, assembled in two opposing
alliances: the Allies (centered around the Triple Entente) and the
Central Powers. More than 70 million military personnel, including
60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the largest wars in
history. More than 9 million combatants were killed, due largely to
great technological advances in firepower without corresponding
advances in mobility. It was the second deadliest conflict in
Western history.

TRENCH WARFARE

Trench warfare is where combatants occupy fighting lines consisting
of fortified trenches. Trenches provided protection from small arms
fire and, in most conditions, sheltered soldiers from artillery.
Elaborate trenches and dugout systems were built by all sides and
these were from assault by barbed wire. Though trenches were built
to protect soldiers, life in the trench, with mud, rats, human waste
and casualties, gas attacked and sustained artillery, was sheer
hell.

THE TRENCH WATCH

The Trench watch or wristlet was a type of watch that came into use
by the military during World War I, as pocket watches were not
practical in combat. The trench watch had to be rugged. Yet trench
watches were actually pocket watch conversions, with most having a
clam shell back and snap on bezel.

The introduction of SHIELDS or SHRAPNEL GUARDS
were  introduced to protect the crystal of watches
from damage due to life in a trench and not from artillery. It
protected the crystal from accidental breakage.

The first series of military wrist watches were produced in 1880 by
Girard-Perregaux for the German Navy. During the GREAT WAR numerous
companies produced wrist watches for the military and for direct
sale to soldiers. Most of these watches were styled similarly.

They had white or black enamel dials, outlined contrasting color
wide “RAILROAD” style numerals in a variety of luminance styles or
simply black outlined. Some had an inner military time (13-24) ring
and some had the number “12” painted or lumed. Many of these watches
did not have their movements signed with the name of the
manufacturer, though most were marked “Swiss”.

THE POCKET WATCH

Pocket watches, timers, chronograph were utilized by soldiers from
every warring country. Leather fobs or Lanyards were utilized to
attach the watches to the soldier. In other cases, wrist holders
were produced for small to medium pocket watches. They are rare and
many did not survive the war due to the fact inexpensive watches
were used and after the war it was hard to find pockets the size and
shapes required.

 

 PERSHING-WATCH-WWI-ELGIN.html

 

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